Computer networking is the process of transferring data between computers on a network. Data is transmitted through networks, whether it’s a local area network, a wide area network, or even an internet-based network. A computer network can help to build a company’s organization from a single entity to a large and complex enterprise.
Today, the term networking includes the sharing of resources with other devices connected via cable or wireless technology. In general terms, this means that any system has one or more connections with other systems (both transient and permanent) that exchange information in some way by using data packets or bits over shared media.
Computer networking is the interconnection of computers and their supporting components. It allows computing devices to communicate with each other and share resources (such as applications, data, services, and content). The interconnected nature of computer networks creates opportunities to improve security and reduce costs. Furthermore, the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has made networking more important than ever.
In our previous article, we talked about cloud networking technology. But now, it’s time to touch on another topic that matters a lot: computer networking. Computer networking is a never-ending topic. So let’s dive into it. In this post, we will talk about computer networking technologies where you can find block and switch topologies, as well as distributed data centers.
What Is Computer Networking?
Computer networking is the set of protocols and standards for communication in computer networks. A computer network consists of two or more computers linked together by a network medium: such as a phone line, satellite link, broadband cable connection, or local area network. And also, computer networking is a set of technologies that allow efficient exchange of data between devices connected to a computer network. It is used by all types of organizations including businesses, governments, and schools, it allows easy transmission of information over long distances.
It is the process of allowing computers on a network to communicate with each other. The process of networking is called LAN and WAN technologies, which are network systems provided by various companies. Most computers are connected to one or more servers (or mainframes), but some networks connect many different desktops.
Computer networks are a system that ties together computers and other devices through a set of interconnections. Networks have to have packets, users, and devices to make sure data can move from one device to another. Without network connections, computer communication would not work the way it does today.
Computer networks are the physical infrastructure that connects network devices to enable communications across networks. The protocols and technical standards used to operate a network allow computers and devices to exchange data, while services such as Web surfing and email enable users to access information on the Internet.
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How Does A Computer Network Work?
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The TCP/IP protocol suite allows users to connect to the Web and other network services. The data links that comprise a network are associated with addresses or IP addresses, which are globally unique identifiers that permit data communication over the Internet. Data packets come from a network host, travel through intermediate nodes, and eventually reach their destination at a node with the same address.
The OSI model specifies seven layers of abstraction for information transfer between devices on computer networks. Each layer performs a service for specific types of devices or operations. For example, the TCP/IP layer manages transmission control, including error checking and retransmission of lost data packets.
Computer networks work using a different group of hardware and software. All packet-switched networks use TCP/IP to establish a standard means of communication. Every endpoint in a network has a special identifier that is utilized to display the source or goal of the transmission. Identifiers include the node’s IP address or MAC address. Endpoint nodes include switches, routers, servers, personal computers, phones, networked printers, and other peripheral computing devices, as well as sensors and actuators.
Your network’s capacity is the amount of traffic it can handle at any given time. A network’s capacity is measured in terms of bandwidth. The theoretical maximum number of bits per second (bps) that can pass through a network device represents its bandwidth. On the other hand, it is a measure of the actual rate of successful transmission after taking into account factors such as latency, processing power, and protocol overhead.
The advantages of using computer networks include the following:
- File sharing allows people to share files between themselves.
- The sharing of resources allows users to use multiple devices, such as copiers and printers.
- Communication allows users to exchange and receive messages and data from several devices in real-time.
- The fact that data is available via an internet connection is a convenience.
- Cost savings are realized because networked devices can share resources; and storage, which allows users to access data stored remotely or on other network devices.
What Do Computer Networks Do?
Computer networks are used for the sharing of information, the transfer of files, and the communication of people across physical distances. Computer networks include both private and public networks, with public networks generally supporting more users at greater speeds than private ones.
The main function of computer networks is to get information from one place to another. As the name implies, all computers are connected by cable or radio; this network allows all computers on a network to share data quickly, avoiding duplication. To accomplish this, each computer is given an ID number, which then identifies the exact user accessing a resource within the network.
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A computer network (or simply network) is a set of hardware, software, and technologies that allow nodes to share resources and information. Networks can be used to share anything which has a state – including programming code and the Internet itself. The need for computer networks grew out of the realization that it would be necessary to exchange large amounts of data between different points.
Today’s network infrastructure is critical for the success of businesses of all kinds. Modern-day network solutions deliver more than connectivity. They are built on multi-billion-dollar investments in connectivity, automation, and security. Network capabilities are becoming more programmable, automated, and secure – so they can support the digital transformation that business leaders need to succeed.
Modern computer networks can: Here are some points:
- They can handle traffic, provide security and privacy, and even provide a platform for distributed computing.
- This can Virtually work.
- Modern computers can be massively integrated.
- Modern computers react rapidly to changing conditions.
- It can provide large data security.
- It is used to store information and transfer it to other computers.
- It is also used to connect computers so that they can communicate with each other.
- Modern computer networks are highly connected and rely on a vast number of devices, both local and remote, to enable their functions.
- The modern computer network is a complex web of computers that communicate with each other, allowing them to share files and perform tasks.
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Types of Computer Network Architecture
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In general, computer networks are designed to meet the needs of customers and users. The design of computer networks or communication networks is known as network architecture. It simply describes how the work is distributed among all the computers in the network. So, this is exactly how all network devices and services are organized and managed across connected clients such as laptops, tablets, servers, and so on, as well as how assignments are assigned to computers. It provides system-level functionality as well as maintainability, extensibility, and development flexibility. It is defined as the physical and functional design of software, hardware, protocols, and data transmission media. Network classification is based on the use of computer nodes. Network architectures are divided into the following groups:
In peer-to-peer networks, “peers” usually represent computers. These computers are connected to each other via the Internet. Files can be shared directly between these systems on the network without the need for a central server. This type of network architecture is commonly called “distributed computing”. Each computer on a P2P network usually becomes a file server, even if it is receiving files from other peers. In this architecture, systems are typically decomposed into different computational nodes with similar and equivalent capabilities, capabilities, and responsibilities.
In this network, tasks are allocated to each and every device available on the network. This network is essential for small environments—typically fewer than 10 computers—but can also be used in larger environments, depending on your needs. There is no separate department for the client and server; All systems communicate directly with each other as peers over the Internet. Every computer in this network is considered equal and equal, and it is possible to send or receive a message directly. This peer-to-peer network is generally useful in a variety of industries such as commerce, education, military, etc.
- A dedicated server or centralized system is not needed, so a P2P network is cheaper and much cheaper. You can afford it.
- P2P is very simple and not complicated. This is because all the computers connected to the network communicate efficiently and communicate well with each other.
- It is very easy and simple to set up and manage, since installation and management are less painless, and the computer manages itself. This is due to built-in support in modern operating systems.
- Security is one of the main concerns in this type of network. This is because the sent message is freely transmitted between the connected computers.
- Resource sharing can become a serious problem if computers are running with few resources.
- With the increase in the number of computers on this network, performance, security, and access can also become major concerns and headaches.
A client-server network is a kind of computer network, and this is a centralized and powerful computer, which is also called a server. It is a hub to which a number of less powerful personal computers or workstations, also known as clients, are connected. It is a kind of system where the clients are connected to the server only to share or use the resources. Thus, these servers are generally considered to be the heart of the computer system. Therefore, the client-server network is more stable and scalable as compared to the P2P network. In this architecture, the computer is normally decomposed into client and server processors or processes. This computer architecture usually supports the separation of functionality based on the concept of service.
- The server provides a special network operating system to provide resources to many users who request them.
- This is very easy to set up and manage data updates. This is because the data is usually stored centrally on the server.
- The server usually controls the resources and security of the data.
- This network also increases the speed of resource exchange.
- If in any way the server goes down or crashes, everything will be affected.
- This is more expensive than P2P. This is because more memory is needed for servers, as well as multiple network devices such as hubs, routers, switches, and so on.
- The price of providing NOS is too expensive.
What is network topology?
A network topology is a map of the logical relationships of network nodes. It is important to recognize that the physical or geographic location of network nodes and links usually has relatively little effect on a network, but the topology of a network’s interconnections can significantly affect network throughput and reliability. In many technologies, such as bus or star networks, a single failure can lead to a complete network failure. In general, the more interconnections, the more reliable the network; But just as expensive to install. Therefore, most network diagrams are organized by their network topology, which is a map of the logical relationships of network nodes.
Here are given 6 types of Network Topology:
- A bus network: In the original Ethernet, all nodes were connected through a common medium called this medium. It was called 10BASE5 and 10BASE2. This is still a common topology at the data link layer, although modern physical layer variants use point-to-point links, forming a star or tree instead.
- Star network: All nodes are connected to a specific central node. This is typical for a small switched Ethernet LAN, where each client connects to the main network switch, and, logically, for a wireless LAN, where each wireless client connects to a main wireless access point.
- A ring network: Each node is connected to its left and right neighboring nodes, such that all nodes are connected and each node can reach another node by traversing nodes on the left or right. Token Ring networks and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) used this topology.
- Mesh network: Each node is connected to an arbitrary number of neighbors in such a way that there is at least one traversal from any node to any node.
- Fully Connected Network: Every node is connected to every other node in the network.
- Tree Network: The nodes are arranged in a hierarchy. This is the natural topology for a large Ethernet network with many switches and without redundant meshes.
Types of Computer Networks
There are five main types of Computer Networks:
Local Area Network [LAN]
Local area networks are small groups of computers linked together in one physical location. So, Local Area Network equipment can be located in your home, school, or business, and includes routers, switches, and computers. The most common public LANs include Ethernet, an advanced technology for connecting homes, offices, schools, and other small areas together. Other networks are wireless or use the Internet to connect computers.
Personal Area Network [PAN]
Personal area networks (PANs) are wireless connections between electronic devices that are within immediate reach of a user. Common examples of PAN include Bluetooth, which connects a smartphone to a Bluetooth earpiece, and Wi-Fi, which allows users to connect multiple laptops, tablets, and printers.
Metropolitan Area Network [MAN]
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that links together computers in an area, typically within a metropolitan area. In the most common use of the term, it refers to a computer network linking computers of businesses, schools, universities, and other establishments in a town or city. MAN is designed to connect computers within a metropolitan area, which may be a large city or several cities and towns. It doesn’t have to be in urban areas; The term “metropolitan” refers to the size of the network, not the demographics of the area it serves.
Wide Area Network [WAN]
- A network that serves a country or large population.
- Telephone conversation lines are also connected through WAN.
- WAN is the biggest internet in the world.
- Government organizations mostly use it to handle data and information.
Virtual Private Network [VPN]
A VPN extends a private network over a public network such as the Internet. VPNs use standard Internet connection protocols to reroute all web traffic through a single VPN server. This means that all the data passed back and forth between your computer and the target is encrypted, which safeguards it from anyone who might steal it.
How Many Types of Enterprise Computer Networks
The term “enterprise computer network” refers to a set of computers that allow users to work together, sharing information and resources such as printers, files, or databases. Some of the main types of enterprise networks are local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), cloud networks, and service provider networks.
Local area network (LAN)
A LAN is a network limited in size and geography. This normally links computers and devices within a single office or building. LANs are used to connect large numbers of systems, such as server rooms and data centers. A single LAN can have one or more cabling connections, sometimes calledunda interfaces, that permit communication between systems distributed across an office building using point-to-point links.
Wide area networks (WAN)
Wide area networks (WAN) consist of multiple network elements that are geographically separated. The individual network elements are connected via one or more transmission links, which may be leased from a service provider by the user equipment located at the endpoints. The basic function of a WAN is to allow packet-switched data to cross geographic boundaries at fairly high data rates while providing access to users who have little or no familiarity with such systems.
Cloud networking is the delivery of network services to users via a cloud-based service. A cloud network can be provisioned with a variety of network capabilities and resources to meet the needs of an organization, including virtual routers, firewalls, bandwidth, and network management software.
Service Provider Networks
Service providers are industries that provide services and products to customers globally. They contain telecommunications enterprises, data carriers, wireless communications providers, Internet service providers, and cable television operators offering high-speed Internet access.
How is computer networking evolving?
Computer networking is evolving to meet the needs of consumers. For example, computer security has become more important as hackers find new ways to attack our computers and networks. Plus, greater levels of connectivity have made it easier for businesses to market themselves online. Because Networking is critical to the success of modern-day businesses. Facilitating innovation in these growing organizations, today’s network architects are focused on developing their designs to meet the needs of their customers and users.
As software becomes more powerful and people want things faster and in virtual spaces, the need to share data across multiple systems becomes even more important. The possibilities are nearly limitless by creating a common communication platform between computers. The advent of the World Wide Web has allowed people to share information with less effort than ever before.
The way we communicate, share and collaborate has evolved over the past few decades. The Internet of Things (IoT) is creating a new “Internet of Everything,” where devices are so seamlessly connected that you can never lose a thing. The following network designs are evolving to fulfill these requirements:
Software-defined networks (SDN)
It provides more flexibility and programmability than traditional networks. Decisions on how to route traffic are made centrally through software-based mechanisms, instead of being based on hardware routers in the network. This provides the network with a faster response time, which helps it to be more effective in handling changing conditions.
Intent-based networks give enterprises the ability to execute rapidly by automating operations extensively, analyzing their performance, and pinpointing problematic areas. By implementing intent-based networking (IBN), organizations now can achieve desired objectives by automating operations, integrating with business processes, and providing all-around security.
Virtualization provides a way to run multiple operating systems and applications on the same physical machine. By separating the operating system from the underlying hardware, separate virtual machines can be created, giving IT managers the flexibility to create separate networks for security, quality-of-service (QoS) functions, and other business applications. This results in the creation of multiple “overlay” networks that can be tuned to meet specific security, quality of service (QoS), and other requirements.
Network controllers are vital to network security and scalability. They facilitate automated network device configuration and provisioning, and they monitor devices continuously to identify and troubleshoot issues before they impact end users. Controllers automate operations and help organizations respond to changing business requirements.
Multi-domain integration Large enterprises can create separate networks for their offices, WANs, and data centers, also known as networking domains. Such networks communicate with each other through their controllers. Typically, enterprise SIs are designed to enable all traffic on their integrated network to flow in one direction. This type of integration is sometimes called unidirectional or bidirectional domain integration.
Advantage And Disadvantages of Computer Networks
Computer networks can be used for many different purposes, including
- You can easily share files and data between multiple devices.
- You can communicate with other computers on the same network.
- You can share resources such as storage, printers, or even power among multiple devices.
- The ability to share data across large groups of people or systems.
- It has the capability to access information from anywhere in the world.
- It has the ability to control access to certain areas or resources.
- Central storage of data.
- Any computer can connect to the network.
- Fast problem-solving.
- it’s very flexible
- Security through authorization.
- This increases the storage capacity.
- It lacks power.
- It lacks independence.
- Viruses and malware can affect.
- Network costs can be expensive.
- Limited Storage Capacity.
What Is The Future of Computer Networking?
Computer Networking is the most important and useful technology that the computer industry has. So, It allows us to communicate with our friends, family, and coworkers across geographical boundaries; it has become central to business operations at every level. Given the scope and value of this technology, it is no surprise that computer networking remains an area of interest for many students and professionals alike. Computer networking is key to the success of all businesses. It allows them to connect with customers and grow. Today, business professionals need to think about cybersecurity.
So basically we can say, the future of computer networks is in the cloud. The most efficient way to run a data center has always been to use multiple racks of computers stacked tightly together. But if you’re running a large enterprise or big retailer, that’s not feasible. However, with the right software, there are several ways to set up virtualized machines in your existing physical infrastructure, which allows you to use smaller racks more efficiently without sacrificing performance.
The future of computer networking will shape by semiconductors, cloud computing, and mobile devices. Computer networking is a field that allows efficient information flows between computers. Thus, the future of computer networking relies on the development of more efficient and cost-effective communication methods. For example, optical networks will use to transmit large amounts of information in conjunction with laser technology to transmit data quickly and efficiently.
Final Thoughts on Computer Networking
Computer Networking involves the use of computer networks to connect large numbers of computers. The main purpose of computer networks is to enable different types of organizations, small businesses, or large companies to share information, make it easier to share files, and perform other tasks. So, a computer network is a means of interconnecting personal computers, workstations, printers, scanners, and all other types of devices that transmit data, including email. Computer networks allow you to link several computers together to share files and resources.
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